Military Oligarchy

Obasanjo, Danjuma, and Yaradua
Old Photo showing military oligarchs (T.Y. Danjuma and Shehu Yaradua) with General Obasanjo in the middle. Source: abiyamo.com

Military Oligarchy is a system in which political power rests with a few military officers. Although the military class existed in several ancient southwestern Nigerian towns in pre-colonial times, the constitution of this class into the ruling oligarchy appears to have been an Ibadan innovation. Where the warriors do no more than fight, the brave and the skilled are honored with chieftaincy titles from the military line. I.O Sotunde highlights in his book on Egba chieftaincy that there was no mobility from the military to the civilian even when the holders of the title assumes a civil role. This presumably underscores the importance placed on the military. With the increase of warfare, the Alaafin honored his friend, who was a great warrior with the title of the Aare Ona Kakanfo, which is the commander of the kingdom’s army. This was the title taken by Oluyedun following the exit of the last group of allied army of Ife at Ibadan in the 1830s. With seven other military chiefs, Oluyedun formed a power bloc that ruled the new city state of Ibadan. By the time of his successor, Oluyedun’s death in 1847, a military oligarchy had been firmly established. In this system, leadership was collective, appointment of chiefs was not hereditary, and new titles were created to reward persons who have been able to forge a brilliant military career. A civil group of chiefs emerged in c.1850 Ibadan for the need to relieve Generals of the duty of governance to enable them focus on Ibadan’s expasionist agenda. Much like the government of President Babangida that was to come to Nigeria a century and thirty five years after, a system of government was formed such that power was divided among two major chieftaincy groups- one civil and the other military.

 

Demonstration in Zaria after the first Nigerian coup in 1966
Demonstration in Zaria after the first Nigerian coup in 1966. Source: takemetonigeria.com

Military rule in Nigeria after the first coup de tat in 1966, according to D.M. Jemibewon on Reflections of a General, took an hybrid model of the Indrect and Dual Dictatorships. The Indirect, practiced in inter-war Germany, Japan, and Cuba of the 1930s-40s features military-civilian companionship between de jure civilian rulers and de facto military aristocrats who stay in the background. This appears to be the system in pre-colonial Ibadan as illustrated by T. Fatola and D. Oguntosimi in Military in the 19th Century Yoruba Politics. The Dual Dictatorship, like Turkish and the South Korean model of 1961 features a sort of partnership between the Armed Forces and the civilians. The military, like the former, are senior in this relationship. In Nigeria, the foray of the military into governance was for a large chunk of the time benevolent unlike the classic military oligarchies or dictatorships in Latin America, Middle and Far East, and in other African countries. Autocratic tendencies or near descent into one was however present in Nigeria’s experience.

While military oligarchy arose in ancient Ibadan due to the place being originally a military camp populated primarily by soldiers, it arose in post-1966 Nigeria to “right the wrongs.” The Nigerian military in fact was originated from an institution which helped to establish and sustain imperialist rule. While it may be said of the civilian political class including even the “valiant,” that they midwifed independence, the military on the other hand had no chance to play a role. Nevertheless, each new regime was welcomed by citizens cheerfully for they were never in want for justification to seize power. With the death of Sani Abacha, the least popular of them all, came the chance to entrench democracy in 1999.