Updates from Professionals

  • Litcaf - Remilekun Falade

    Remilekun Falade 4 weeks ago

    Hello everyone. We are on to LitCaf. The very big one.

  • Litcaf - Adedamola Abraham

    Adedamola Abraham 4 weeks ago

    Kids should not be encouraged to dump the sciences for anything. That is not hoe to grow an economy.

  • Litcaf - Temitope Jeremiah

    Temitope Jeremiah 1 month ago

    What caption for this? Surely a great shot.

  • Litcaf - Temitope Jeremiah

    Temitope Jeremiah 2 months ago

    This is how we do it. Happiness at work..Come try LitCaf

  • Litcaf - Temitope Jeremiah

    Temitope Jeremiah 3 months ago

    What we do at #LitCaf #Coworking

  • Litcaf - Temitope Jeremiah

    Temitope Jeremiah 3 months ago

    Not all about tech. Our use base is diverse array of gentle men and ladies. #LitCaf is where you want to be. #Coworking #Yaba #Lagos

  • Litcaf - Tope

    Tope 3 months ago

    Lets do this together, Otondo friends.

  • Litcaf - Temitope Jeremiah

    Temitope Jeremiah 4 months ago

    Dictionary definition of freelancer. How well do you agree with that?

  • Litcaf - Lovey Dovey

    Lovey Dovey 4 months ago

    Hello Everyone. Happy to be here on LitCaf

  • Litcaf - Apoola

    Apoola 4 months ago

    Idealized Biafra. Nothing shameful about that.

  • Litcaf - Temitope Jeremiah

    Temitope Jeremiah 4 months ago

    Good morning everyone. Wake up with a newer determination to achieve your objective.

  • Litcaf - Tope Apoola

    Tope Apoola 4 months ago

    Still testing. One long test.

  • Litcaf - Apoola

    Apoola 4 months ago

    We got books to lend.

  • Litcaf -

    5 months ago

    Memory lane...Ken Saro Wiwa

  • Litcaf - Temitope Jeremiah

    Temitope Jeremiah 5 months ago

    One innovation of ours.

  • Litcaf - Temitope Jeremiah

    Temitope Jeremiah 5 months ago

    May7ven was born in May 7. I thought that was obvious. However, that isn\'t what we are talking about now. Do you know that this website actually does not allow copy and paste because of its care about aesthetics?

  • Litcaf - Tope Apoola

    Tope Apoola 5 months ago

    Me..Me..Me

  • Litcaf - MI Apoola

    MI Apoola 5 months ago

    We research and present needed data to help with forecast, survey, and decision making. SND MiniMax Consultancy.

  • Litcaf - MI Apoola

    MI Apoola 5 months ago

    Hello everyone. I like to introduce SND MiniMax Consultancy. We are involved in data collection and human capacity building.

  • Litcaf -

    5 months ago

    Hello, LitCaf. Seems very exciting, what\'s coming down here. Meanwhile, making a shout-out to best gal, May7.

Flood

Flood in Ikorodu caused by the River Ogun is here captured in an aerial photograph.
The River Ogun Flood in Ikorodu is here captured in an aerial photograph. Photo: fluswikien.hfwu.de

Flooding is an environmental problem that towns and cities all over the world contend with. It can be caused when high tides cause rivers or oceans to overflow their banks, or simply by heavy rainfall. There is higher vulnerability where natural drainage system is poor, or where the soil capacity to contain water is minimal. Risk is yet higher where there is poor urban planning, or where foresight is not shown, in cases where, for instance, development is allowed in places such as wetlands that may have faired better as buffers in times of flooding. Oyinloye M. and others at the Federal University of Technology Akure mentions in an article published in the Journal of Earth and Environmental Science that about one-third of the Nigerian land mass is at an elevation less than eight meters above sea level, and those areas are therefore covered often with flood waters. In their research, poor refuse disposal pratice, encroashment on flood plains, and lack of adequate setback from rivers were noted as the major cause of flooding especially in the Lagos area.

The big towns of Lagos and Ibadan have more than others experienced flooding. The Lagos flood of October 1886 was distressing enough to require efforts from the head of the Babalawo, Araba Agbaosi, the chief imam, Mohammed Nolla, and Bishop Tugwell of the Anglican church. The Ogunpa stream in Ibadan which snakes around the city bursts its banks in 1963 and again in 1979, at least on a large scale, recording loss of about a hundred and fifty lives and properties running into millions. Flood in 2012, ending in about 363 deaths, and with 2 million rendered homeless was said to be unprecedented. Though a yearly occurrence, flooding is becoming more severe due to adverse effect of climate change. As confirmed by Kolawole O.M. and others at the Microbiology department of UniIlorin, flooding affects more people on annual basis than any form of natural disaster, though not leading in number of lives claimed. The most deaths due to flood worldwide occurred in Central China with lost of 3.7 million lives in July 1931.

The two principal methods of flood control are the reservoir storage of part of flood water to mitigate the maximum intensity of the flood. The second method includes the increase of the capacity of the channel through which the flood water will pass. In addition to natural reservoirs like lakes and swamps, which have considerable storage capacity, there are artificial reservoirs. Man-made reservoirs, though rarely constructed solely for flood-control can be used damp-down a flood. A reservoir may act in storing a large portion of flood water as possible to release it after the flood has subsided. It may also provide, like the natural lake, an outlet which is constantly discharging based on the height of the water in the reservoir. Where there are no reservoirs, channels through which the flood water takes its course can be improved to increase the velocity of flow, and the cross-sectional area of channel. Ground drainage may take the form of open ditches and canals, or subsoil drains, depending on local conditions.